Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making
with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901
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Take a piece of one-inch square Swede iron, hold the iron diagonally over the anvil, with your left hand a little toward the horn, the end of the iron to reach out over the outside edge of the anvil. Now strike so that the sledge and hammer will hit half face over the anvil and the other half of the sledge and hammer out side of the anvil. Hammer it down to about three eighth of an inch thick. Now pull the iron towards you straight across the anvil, give it one half turn toward yourself so that this side which was up, now will be towards yourself; the end that first was outside the anvil now to rest over the inner edge of the anvil, push the jaw up against the anvil until it rests against the shoulder made in the first move. Now hammer this down until it is the thickness of the jaw that is desired. Next, turn it over, with the bottom side up or the side that was down, up; push it out over the outside edge of the anvil again so far that the shoulder or set down you now have up, will be about an inch outside and over the edge of the anvil, now give a few blows to finish the jaw, then finish the shanks and weld in half inch round iron to the length desired. The jaws should be grooved with a fuller, if you have none of the size required take a piece of round iron and hammer it down in the jaws to make the groove.
Tongs grooved this way will grip better. Next, punch a hole in one jaw, place it over the other in the position wanted when finished, then mark the hole in the other jaw, and when punched rivet them together, the jaws to be cold and the rivet hot. The following story will suggest to you how to finish it. An apprentice once made a pair of tongs when his master was out, and when he had them riveted together could not move the jaws. As he did not know how to make them work he laid them away under the bellows. At the supper table the apprentice told his master the following story: An apprentice once made a pair of tongs and when he had them riveted together he could not move the jaws, and as he did not know what to do he simply threw them away, thinking he must have made a mistake somehow. "What a fool," said the master, "Why didn't he heat them." At the next opportunity the apprentice put his tongs in the fire and when hot they could be worked very easily.