Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making
with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901
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S Wrench and Rock Drills
See Figure 6, No.3. This wrench is for 3/8 nut on one end and 1/2 on the other, just the kind for plow work. To make one, take a piece of tool steel 1 1/2 X 5/8 start as you see in NO.4, Figure 6. Set the jaws down with the fullers, punch a round hole as in end NO.4, cut out from hole and finish the jaws to make the right length, now bend it in S shape and finish. This makes the best wrench. Do not heat over a red heat.
Few blacksmiths know how to make a rock drill. Take a piece of round or octagon steel, the desired length and thickness, shape it, but it must be remembered that if during the process you ever get it over a red heat there is no use to proceed, but just cut off that much and start again, no hardening will prevail if it is burnt. The trouble begins when you put the steel into the fire, and you must watch until you have it finished. When ready to harden heat it to a cherry red heat, cool in water not too cold, brighten and watch for temper. When it is yellow, cool it off, but not entirely, take it out of the water before it is quite cold and let it cool slowly, this will make the drill both hard and tough. By this simple process I have been able to dress drills and get such a good temper than only two per cent would break. Another way to harden is to heat to a very low heat and cool it off entirely at once. A third way is to temper as first stated and when yellow set the drill in water only one half an inch deep and let it cool. By this process a good per cent will break just at the water line.