Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making
with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901
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Blacksmiths Fire and Tuyer Iron
Good strong blast is also necessary for heavy work. There is an old whim about the fire that everybody, farmers and others, as well as blacksmiths are infected with, and that is, if a piece of brass is put in the fire it renders the fire useless to weld with. Now, while it is a fact that brass is not conducive to welding it takes a good deal of it before the fire is made useless. One smith will not dare to heat a galvanized pipe in his fire, for fear it will spoil it, while another smith will weld a piece of iron or steel to such a pipe without difficulty. Don't swear and curse if the fire is not what you expect it to be, but simply make it right. Some smiths have the habit of continually poking in the fire, if they weld a piece of iron they never give it rest enough to get hot, but turn it over from one side to another and try to fish up all the cinders and dust to be found in the fire. This is a bad habit. Yellow colored fire is a sign of sulphur in the fire and makes a poor fire for welding. Dead coal makes a poor fire.
One of the chief reasons for a poor fire is a poor blast. No patent tuyer will give blast enough unless you run it by steam and have a fan blower. Ninety per cent of the blast is lost in transmission through patent tuyers. The only way to get a good blast is to have a direct tuyer, and one with a water space in. To make a direct tuyer take a pipe 1 ¼ x 12 inches long, weld around one end of this pipe an iron 3 5/8 to make it thick on the end that is in the fire, flare out the other end for the wind pipe to go in and place it horizontal in the fire and fill up around it with fireproof day. This gives the best fire. The only objection to this tuyer is that where soft coal is used, as is mostly the case in country shops, it gets hot and clogs up, but with a strong blast and good hard coal it never gets hot, provided the fire is deep enough. From five to eight inches is the right distance from the tuyer to the face of the fire. In factories this kind of tuyer is used, and I have seen them used for ten years, and never found them to clog once. The tuyer was just as good after ten years use as it was when put in.
To make a water tuyer take a pipe 1 ¼ x 12, weld a flange on each end for water space, now weld another pipe over this, and bore holes for 1/4 inch pipes in the end, where the blast goes in. One hole on the lower or bottom side should be for the cold water to go in through, and one hole on the upper side for the hot water to go out through. These pipes to connect with a little water tank for this purpose. The pipes should be watched so that they will not be allowed to freeze or clog, as an explosion might follow. These tuyers never clog. I now use one that I have made as above described. The dealers now have them to sell. Any smith can get them as they are hard to make by the average smith.