Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making
with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901
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Split Welds - Forge Blowers - Welding Iron
Split weld is preferable when steel is to be welded, especially tool steel of a heavy nature, like drill bits for well drillers. If the steel is welded to iron, split the iron and draw out the ends as thin as possible and make it the shape shown in Figure 6, NO.2. Taper the steel to fill the split made in the iron, when it fits perfectly cut beard in it to catch in the lips of the iron when fitted in. See Figure 6, NO.2. When finished heat the split end and cool off the tapered end. Place the tapered end snug up in the split and hammer it together with a heavy sledge. If there is any crack or opening at the end of the tapered end, plug it up with iron plugs, if this is not done, these holes will be almost as they are, because it is hard to weld a heavy shaft or drill, or rather, it is hard to hammer them together so the holes will close in. Now heat, but if you have tool steel go slow, or your steel will burn before the iron is hot enough. Weld the lips while the rod or drill is in the fire. For this purpose use a hammer with an iron handle in. When the lips are welded all around take it out and let two good helpers come down on it with all their might. When welded smooth it up with the hammer or flat hammer.
I have tried many kinds of blowers and I shall give my brother smiths the advantage of my experience. Portable forges run with fan blowers are fair blowers if you are strong enough to pump away at high speed, but it takes a horse to do that, and as soon as you drop the lever the blast ceases. Root's blower works easier, but the objection is the same, as soon as you drop the crank the blast stops. Besides this trouble, this blower is often in the way. I have never found anything to beat the bellows yet, if you only know how to use them.
Never take a set of bellows less than 48 extra long. Cut the snout off so that it will give a hole 1 1/2, and with a water tuyer this blower cannot be beaten, except by a fan blower run by steam. The bellows should be hung over head to be out of the way. When these bellows are full of wind they will blow long enough after you have dropped the lever to do quite a good many things around the forge, and to handle the iron in the fire with both hands as is often necessary.
Welding iron is easy and no other welding compound is needed than sand, unless it is a case when the iron is liable to burn or scale off, borax will prevent this. There are three kinds of welds, butt, lap and split. The butt weld is most used in welding iron. The ends should be rounded off a little so that the center will weld first. Weld the ends this way either in the fire or on the anvil, butting the ends while you strike over and dress down the weld. In welding lap welds upset the ends and make them a good deal heavier than the size of the iron is; then lap the ends with a short lap. New beginners will always make a long lap. This is wrong, for if the lap is long it will reach beyond the upset part and the ends cannot then be welded down, without you make it weak. If soft steel is welded cut a short cut with the chisel in the center of the lap, as shown in Figure 6, No. I. This cut will hook and prevent the ends from slipping; if properly prepared this weld will not show at all when done.