Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making
with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901
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Back Dished Wagon Wheel
For a back dished wheel a screw should be used to set the wheel right. Place the wheel on the table front side up. Put wood blocks under the fellow to raise the wheel up from the table. Place a two by four over the hole under the table; have a bolt long enough to reach through the two by four and up through the hub, a piece of wood over the hub for the bolt to go through; screw it down with a tail nut. When the wheel is right, put the tire on. The tire for such a wheel should have more draw than for a wheel that is right. If a buggy wheel has been dished it can be helped a little without taking the tire off. Place the wheel on the anvil so that the tire will rest against the anvil.
Don't let the tire rest lengthwise on the anvil. If you do, the tire will be bent out of shape when you begin to hammer on it. Use the least surface possible of the anvil and hammer on the edge of the tire; the stroke of the hammer to be such that the blow will draw the tire out from the fellow. A tire too tight can be remedied this way. When bolting a wheel the tire will be out of place unless the tire has been shrunk alike on both sides of the fellow plates. A smith used to setting tires will be able to get the holes almost to a perfect fit. If a tire is too short, don't stretch it with a sharp fuller that will cut down into the tire, when the tire is a little worn it will break in this cut. Draw it out with a wide fuller and smooth it down with the hammer. If it is much too short, weld in a piece. This is easily done. Take a piece of iron 1/4 -inch thick, the width of the tire and the length needed, say about three inches. Taper the ends and heat it to a red heat. Place it on the tire in the fire and weld. This will give material for stretching.
If the wheel has a strong back dish it cannot be set right to stay with the tire alone, as a bump against the fellow is apt to throw the dish back. It is therefore safer in all back dished wheels to take the spokes out of the hole and set them right by wedges in the end of the spokes. These wedges should not be driven from outside in but be placed in the end of the spoke so that they will wedge into the spoke when the same is driven back into its place. Use glue.