Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making

with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901

How to Make a Horse Shoe

It is only in exceptional cases that the shoer turns or makes a shoe. The shoes are now already shaped, creased and partly punched, so all that is needed is to weld on the toe calk and shape the heel calks. Heat the shoe at the toe first, and when hot bend the heels together a little. This is done because the shoes will spread when the toe calk is welded on, and the shoe should not be too wide on the toe, as is mostly the case. If the shoe is narrow at the toe it is easier to fit the same to the foot and get the shoe to fill out on the toe. Many smiths cut too much off from the toe. Before the toe calk is driven onto the shoe bend it a little so as to give it the same curve the shoe has, and the corners of the calk will not stick out over the edge of the shoe. N ow place the shoe in the fire, calk up. Heat to a good low welding heat, and use sand for welding compound. Don't take the shoe out of the fire to dip it in the sand, as most shoers do, for you will then cool it off by digging in the cold sand, of which you will get too much on the inner side of the calk. The same will, if allowed to stay, make the calk look rough.

You will also have to make a new place for the shoe in the fire, which will take up a good deal of time, as the new place is not at once so hot as the place from which the shoe was taken; besides this, you might tear the calk off and lose it. When hot give a couple of good blows on the calk and then draw it out. Don't hold the heels of the shoe too close to the anvil when you draw out the calk, for if you do the calk will stand under, and it should be at a right angle with the shoe. Do not draw it out too long, as is mostly done. Punch the hole from the upper side first. Many first-class horse-shoers punch only from that side, while most shoers punch from both sides. There is no need of heating the shoe for punching the holes. Punch the holes next to the heel first, for if you punch the holes next to the toe when the shoe is hot, the punch will be hot, upset and bent. If it is a large shoe, punch only two holes on each side for the toe calk heat. These holes to be the holes next to the toe when the shoe is hot, and then punch the other two when you draw out the heel calks, and the shoe is hot at the heel. The heel calks should be as short as you can make them; and so should the toe calks.