Modern Blacksmithing Rational Horse Shoeing and Wagon Making
with rules, tables, recipes, etc., useful to manufactures, blacksmiths, machinists, well-drillers, engineers, liverymen, horse-shoers, farmers, wagon-makers, mechanics, amateurs and all others who have occasion to perform the work for which this book is primarily intended. by J.G. Homstrom 1901
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Iron Cement and How to Run a Turning Lathe
A cement for stopping clefts or fissure of iron vessels can be made of the following: Two ounces muriate of ammonia, I ounce of flowers of sulphur, and I pound of cast-iron filings or borings. Mix these well in a mortar, but keep the mortar dry. When the cement -is wanted, take one part of this and twenty parts of clean iron borings, grind- together in a mortar. Mix water to make a dough of proper consistence and apply between the cracks. This will be useful for flanges or joints of pipes and doors of steam engines.
HOW TO RUN A TURNING LATHE
By a student of James College of Mechanic Arts, at Ames, Iowa. Lathes, when first invented, were very rude affairs, but they, like all other machinery, have experienced improvement from year to year until now some of them are more complicated than a watch, and for that reason should receive the best of care. They should be kept clean and well oiled. While being used the dust and shavings should be cleaned off at least every night, and every half day is better. When they are kept in a dusty place, as is very often the case in a general repair shop, they should be kept covered while not in use. Some cheap canvas makes a good cover.
Every person who intends running a lathe should first become acquainted with his machine; become familiar with all the combinations that can be made, so that when a piece of work comes in to be done he will know just how to arrange the lathe to do that work. For instance, a piece of work needs to be turned tapering; this is done by shifting the tail stock to one side. Or there are threads to be cut; know just how to arrange the lathe to cut any number of threads to the inch. Next to care of lathe comes care of tools. When there are a few minutes spare time see that the tools are sharp. Keep them sharp. They will do the work better, faster and with much less strain on the machine. All cutting tools should be made diamond shape, with either one side or the other, depending on the way the carrier is to move, made a little higher; the right side being highest when the carrier is moving to the right, and vice versa. The sharp edge of smoothing tools is made square across, like a plane bit, and thread-cutting tools should be made the same shape as the thread to be cut. Water or oil should be kept on the iron or steel that is being turned. It keeps the point of the tool from getting hot when heavy chips are taken, and it makes a smoother job when the smoothing tool is used. There is no need to use either water or oil when turning cast iron. The tempering of lathe tools is a very particular piece of work, varying considerable with the kind of steel used and the nature of the work to be done. For slow heavy turning the tool must not be too hard, else it would break; while for light swift turning it should be quite hard. For water tempering the temper color varies from a dark blue to a very light straw color, depending, as I have said before, on the nature of the work to be done.