Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
Wood Planes are important tools and they must be kept in good order. I have a strong leaning toward good beechwood planes, notwithstanding the improvements made in iron planes. The wood plane works more smoothly, and is less tiresome to handle. The iron plane has an advantage over the old- fashioned wood plane in the mechanism which adjusts the blade; but wood planes fitted with a patent iron throat, as shown by Fig. 9, the parts of which are A, an adjustable wedge, to change the angle of the blade; B, securing wedge; C, set screw; B, set screw for wedge A, have all the advantages of the metal planes and none of the disadvantages.
The single blade plane is a roughing tool, which, owing to the general use of machine-planed timber, is less called for than formerly; but it is a handy tool. The bit should be ground to a short bevel, the cutting edge ground to the segment of a six-inch circle. The edge of all other plane bits must be ground square, but, to prevent scratching, the corners should be beveled off so as to remove the sharp angles at the cutting edge and about one-eighth of an inch at the back corner of the bevel.
It is absolutely necessary that the face of the cutting blade be perfectly true, so that the cap shall fit close, whether near or far from the edge. When once trued there is no need of touching the face with the grind or oil stone.
In grinding, have the stone revolve toward the cutting edge, as the steel that is worn away is removed more easily than when cutting toward the edge, and the grinder can tell when he reaches the edge. The cutting edge of planes and other tools of like character for cutting soft wood, should he twenty to thirty degrees; for hard wood, forty to eighty degrees.