Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
Taking the Dish out of Wagon Wheels
Before describing my method of taking the dish out of wheels, I will relate how some blacksmiths who think they "know it all," do the work. Farmer Jones got his wagon tires set last year, and the other day the tires became loose again. Jones wants to try another smith, and so he goes to Mr. Know it All's blacksmith shop and tells him that the wheels got dished last year, and that the tires are loose again. He wants them set, but he does not want to have the wheels dish any more. Now, Mr. Know it All sees a "new customer and says: " Yes, yes. I can set them better." And he goes to work. Removing the tires, he sees that the spokes are loose in the hub, and that he must give the tires a good three-quarter inch draw each; so the spokes get tied, and he forgets to fit the pins of the spoke even with the felloe on the face. He calls the job done. Mr. Jones gets the wheels, and the first thing he notices is that they have got another inch of dish and that the tires rest on the pins of the spokes, or as shown in Fig. 182. He can also see an open space between the tire and felloe. The joints of the felloe are not tied to the shoulders on the spokes. He tells the smith of it. "No, no, no; that job is all right, and the tires are tied," is Mr. Know it All's reply. But in three months the tires come off, and all the joints work so badly that the wheel must be repaired again.
Now, Mr. Brown brings me a set of wheels in the same condition as those which Mr. Know it All tried to repair. Mr. Brown tells me to set the tires and get the dish out of the wheels, and to set the spokes down into the hubs. I say: "Yes, yes," as Mr. Know it All did, but I take a somewhat different way. I take the tires off, and cut the ends of the spoke pins off with a round chisel at C C, in Fig. 183. In Fig 182 is shown the dish of the wheel as it is when I begin to work. The tire and the hard strain pull the spokes from the hind shoulder of the hub and on the back of the spokes.
In Fig. 182 will be noticed a small open space, B B, large enough to let a knife blade enter half an inch or more. I have a tire stone with a hole in the center large enough to let the hub in. I put the wheel on the stone, face down, and with a three-quarter-inch rod, with a tail screw on top, I begin to screw the wheel down, as shown in Fig. 184. In Fig. 185 is shown a wooden hammer twelve inches in length and four by four inches, with a long handle. This hammer is placed on the backs of the spokes, when the wheel is on the tire stone, the helper gives the hammer a good blow with another hammer, and in this way I go round the wheel and give every spoke at the hub a good blow. I then turn the tail screw again, go round the wheel once more or oftener with the wooden hammer, and so keep on until the dish is out and the wheel is straight on the face. While the wheel is kept down with the tail screw I measure from B to B as in Fig. 184, and give the tire five-eighths inch.
The tire must be almost red hot, because there is an allowance of one inch, and the tires get five-eighths inch. I put water on, and with a sledge hammer walk around the wheel, giving a heavy blow on each spoke, and blow after blow on the tire opposite the spoke. When it is cold, I have driven the spoke into the hub, and the opening into the rim is closed. The wheel is now ready to come out. Fig. 186 shows the dish in the wheel.
When done, this time the spokes are in their places, as shown in Fig. 186 at B B. I make wedges of good hard wood, fasten them with fish glue in the openings B B, Fig. 186, and cut them off even with the hub. I drive up the hub baud so that the wedges cannot come out; then the job is done.
The dish is out of Mr. Brown's wheels, the spokes are fast in the hub, and I am not afraid that the tires will come off in three months.óBy E. K. WEHRY.