Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
Hand Wood Turning Part 2
When, however, the gouge is held in the positions relative to its line of travel to its cut, shown in Fig. 62 at A and B, there is but little tendency for it to run forward, and it can be fed easily to its cut.
In addition to its use as a roughing tool, the gouge makes a very efficient finishing tool for hollows, though it is not so often employed as such by pattern makers. In this case, however, great care must be taken in controlling its position to the work, as illustrated in Fig. 62.
For finishing plain work, there is the tool shown in Fig. 63 (page 61), which is the exception noted previously as being a finishing and at the same time a cutting tool. It is called a ‘skew chisel,’ because its cutting edge is ground at an angle, or askew to the center line of its length. Furthermore, it is beveled at the cutting end on both sides —as shown in the end view—being ground very keen.
It is employed for finishing straight or parallel surfaces and for dressing down the ends or down the sides of a collar or shoulder. When used for finishing straight or parallel surfaces, it performs the cutting in the center of the length of its cutting edge only, as shown at A, Fig. 63. When it is nicely sharpened, it leaves a polish unlike other finishing tools. But even with these advantages, it has a drawback, and a serious one, to learners, as it seems to have a terrible propensity for tearing into the work, whether it is used on the circumference or facing the shoulders of the work.
This fault can only be overcome by practice, and the reason lies in the difficulty of learning how to handle the tool with dexterity. It must be held almost flat to the work; and yet if it should get quite flat against it, the cutting edge would cut along its whole length, and the pressure of the cut would be sufficient to force the tool edge deeper into the work than is intended, which process would continue, causing the tool to rip in and spoil the work. The face of the chisel nearest to the face of the work being operated upon, stands almost parallel, with just sufficient tilt of the tool to let the cutting edge meet the work in advance of the inside face of the tool; or, in other words, the amount of the tilt should be about that of the intended depth of the cut, so that when the cutting edge of the tool has entered the wood to the requisite depth, the flat face will bear against the work and form a guide to the cutting edge.
The corner of the chisel which is not cutting must be kept clear of the work. Fig. 64 will convey the idea, the arrows showing the direction in which the chisel is supposed to be traveling in each ease.