Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
Hand Wood Turning Part 3
The short lines A and B under the arrows, and those touching the collar at C and D, show the tilt or incline of the chisel to the work. In turning the circumference, the obtuse corner of the chisel is the cutting one; while in turning a side face it is the acute angle. Most pattern makers however, do not often use the skew chisel for finishing straight cylindrical work, because it is liable to make ace of the work more or less wavy.
It is, however, almost always used for cutting off and for down shoulders, for which purpose it is highly advantageous. For circumferential work on cylindrical surfaces an ordinary chisel is mostly employed, the position in which it is held to the work causing it to scrape rather than cut.
A worn-out paring chisel is as good as any. Such a chisel, and the position in which it is held, are illustrated in Fig. 66, in which A represents a section of a piece of cylindrical work; B is the chisel, and C is the hand-rest. Some pattern makers prefer to increase the keenness of this tool by holding it so that the plane of its length lies in the direction denoted by the dotted line D. This, however, renders it more likely to rip into the work, and the position shown in the engraving is good enough, provided the cutting edge be kept properly sharpened. This chisel is also used on side faces.
Still another tool, sometimes used for finishing plain cylindrical surfaces and side faces, is that shown in Fig. 67 (page 65), the cutting edges being B and C. It is used in the same manner and relative position as the chisel, shown in Fig. 66.
For finishing hollows which should just be roughed out with the gouge, the form of tool shown in Fig. 68 is used. Several of these tools, of various sizes, should be kept at hand. They are used in the same position as is the finishing chisel, shown in Fig. 66. The tool C in Fig. 69, is used upon large work, and is advantageous because it presents less surface of cutting edge in proportion to the depth of the cut than the gouge, and in consequence it is less liable to jar or shake the work.
It is generally made about two feet long, which enables the operator to hold it very firmly and steadily. It is used with its top face lying horizontally, and should be kept keen. D, Fig. 69, represents a similar tool with a round nose. This tool is not made long and may be used in a handle.
For boring and shouldering purposes the tools A, B, and E, shown in Fig. 70, are employed. A and B have their cutting edges at C and D and are therefore right and left hand tools. When, however, the hole is too small to admit of these tools being used, E may be employed, its cutting edge being at F. The temper of all these tools should be drawn to a light brown color. óJOSHUA ROSE, M. E.