Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
How to Make a Wooden Axle
A great many wheelwrights who make wooden axles do not know how to shape them so that the wagon will run light. Out of sympathy for man's best friend, the horse, I will attempt to show how to make an axle so that it will make a wagon run easily.
I will suppose that the axle is for a box of four-inch butt and two and a half inch point. Such an axle should not be used for a hub of less than twelve inches. First set the butts of the hubs together and measure from the outside of the spokes. I will say, for convenience, that they measure fourteen inches. You want your wagon to track five feet two inches to the outside of the felloes, the latter being two inches wide.
The stick you use to make the axle of should be five by four and a quarter inches square. You must allow for length of hub the measure of fifty inches from shoulder to shoulder. The most important part is the setting. The wood being straight on the under side, you must measure one-fourth of an inch from the bottom, as in Fig. 223, and cut away. Then measure four inches from the under side to the top, and two and a half inches from the point up, as in Fig. 224.
Then cut. Then you have the top and bottom sides of your axle. The next step is to get the sides. Your wood should be four inches wide. Cut one-third off the front side and two-thirds off the back side, as in Fig. 225; or, as it is four inches, cut one-half from the point and one inch from the back. That leaves two and a half inches point, the size of the box. Now round up to fit the skein, and with this axle you will have a light running wagon.óBy A. B. C.