Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
Wagon Wheels Part 3
Fig. 107 represents the straight-edge used to get the length for the axle, and also to get the taper for the axle in dished wheels. Fig. 108 represents the common factory spokes and the good hand-made, A being the factory, B the handŽmade spoke.
Fig. 109 shows how the spokes look in the hub. The spoke at A is back about a half an inch further than the one at C, the front of each being the same dis-tance from the point of the hub, and consequently the wheel is braced as much as the spoke G would brace it if it had half an inch dish. Fig. 110 shows how the spokes should be driven so as not to touch the box. E E is a vacancy of about one-quarter of an inch between the box and the spoke.
Fig. 111 shows how to measure to get the axle square with the coupling pole or reach. The distance from A to B must be the same as from G to B. Fig. 112 represents the front part, which is measured in the same way as is illustrated in Fig. Ill, the distance from A to B at the point of the tongue being the same as from G to B. Fig. 113 represents the bottom of the axle, A being the back part and B the front. At D D cut one-sixteenth of an inch more off than at O O,
Fig. 114 represents a side. Cut as much oil at L L as at M M for a straight wheel. For a dished wheel cut off more at M M than at L L. The more dish the more must be cut off at M M and the less at L L.
Fig. 115 represents the wheel bench. A A deŽnoting the top of the bench, 0 0 legs, B D an iron rod one inch in diameter in the center of the bench, with a thread cut on it at B and a head at D. It must extend far enough above the top of the bench to reach through the largest hubs. It has a nut on the upper end at K. The rod is square to the top of the bench.
Fig. 116 represents the blocks used in the hubs, A being an end view and B a side view. They have a one-inch hole through the center to fit over the rod in the bench at B, Fig. 115. They are made by first turning a mandrel one inch in diameter in a lathe, and then boring an inch hole in a block, driving the mandrel in the hole, and turning the block on the mandrel. They are of various sizes, so as to fit the different sizes of boxes. One is used in the point and one in the back end of each box, as at B and B in Fig. 117, which represents a box with the wooden blocks in it at A and B. 0 0 denote the inch-hole in the blocks.