Practical Carriage Building
Compiled by M.T. Richardson, Vol.1. 1891
Carriage and Wagon Wheel Making in Country Shops Part 2
I will begin with Fig. 128,, which is an oaken bar two by six, of any length to suit for hoe handles, hammer handles, double and singletrees, and spokes. One end has a headstock, fastened with two bolts to the bar. The piece above the bar is about five inches. One inch from the top, and just in the center line, is a steel center, pointed. b is a front view of this headstock. The tailstock is movable, and fastened with bolts in holes through the bar. There must be, as on the headstock, a steel center, moved by a screw and Fig- 129 is a wheel bench, of ash or oak plank, six or seven feet long, fifteen or sixteen inches wide, three inches thick, with four legs, fastened and fitted securely.
On one end is bolted on top (and true square) a piece of plank two inches thick, on which is screwed, through the base, a horizontal fire drill. The two-inch plank is to bring the center of the drill-spindle high enough to suit hubs eleven by fifteen, twelve by sixteen. To the drill-spindle can be fitted an improved hollow auger (which is the best I have used), or one which is furnished with a stand to bolt to wheel bench. I have not used or seen one of them, therefore cannot tell about its merits. In the center line of the plank bore holes, measured from the mouth of the hollow auger, with the spindle screwed back half the distance of the hight of the wheels, or twenty-two, twenty-five, twenty-eight, thirty, and thirty-three inches, to suit a bolt three-quarters of an inch in diameter and about twenty-six or twenty-seven inches long.
The square head of this bolt is to be fitted into a hard wood block, which block catches against a lath, nailed on the underside of the bench. A gauge, b, for dishing wheels, is also shown in this cut. It is an oaken bar, about three feet six inches long, two by two inches at one end, and two by four or five inches on the other end. Six inches from the end, wide apart, bore a hole to suit the bolt, from which hole measure twenty-two, twenty-five, twenty-eight, thirty, and thirty-three inches on the center line. Bore one-half inch holes, to receive round pins of various lengths, to touch the top of the spokes. Plate the part above the hub with iron.
Fig. 130 is the measuring wheel, which should be of about eight inches diameter, so that the periphery will measure exactly twenty-five inches. The periphery must be marked in inches—half and quarter inches.
Fig. 131 is a tool which was once in common use in wheel¬wrights' shop, but is not so much in vogue at present. It is intended to aid in marking off the holes for spokes in the felloes. The way in which it is used for this purpose is shown with sufficient clearness in the engraving. But in the best shops this tool is not regarded with much favor. It has a serious fault in the fact that its tendency is to make the spokes correspond with the holes, whereas the better plan is to make the holes to suit the spokes. If this latter mode is not followed, it will be found in practical work that, after the holes have been made and the spokes are ready to be inserted in them, it will sometimes be impossible to do this without bending the spoke slightly one way or the other. The result of bending the spoke is of course an increased strain upon it, and a consequent greater liability to break.
Fig. 132 is an adjustable hollow auger. It will be observed that this machine is also provided with a graduated scale or rule, by which the size of the tenon can be regulated.