Handy Farm Devices and How To Make Them
Compiled by Rolfe Cobleigh, NEW YORK, ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 1912, Associate Editor American Agriculturist.
Worth Knowing Part II
Handling Potatoes Easily
A bushel crate is often more convenient to use in handling ear corn, potatoes or other vegetables than a basket. Crates that will hold a bushel when level full may be piled upon one another and thus stored in less space than baskets. At the same time they can be just as easily and just as quickly moved. They may be of light material. Pieces of wood 2 inches square are used for the corner posts. The slats may be made of 1/2-inch boards 3 inches wide nailed securely to the corner posts. There should be just room enough between the two upper slats so that the fingers can be inserted when lifting the box. The box will be more durable if the upper slats are an inch thick. A handy size for the completed box is 16 inches long, 14 inches wide and 12 inches deep, outside measurements.
Cutting Seed Potatoes
In the principal potato growing sections, medium to large seed is used for planting and cut to two eyes. In the famous Greeley district of Colorado, cutting is done by hand. Potatoes are shoveled into a bin or hopper, made of a dry-goods box raised on legs. The back is made higher than the front, so that potatoes will run down to the opening and the bottom is slatted to let out the soil shoveled up with the potatoes.
The cutting is simple. An old case knife, a, is fastened to the end of a plank or board, b, in such a way that potatoes can be pushed against the knife and fall from it into the basket beneath. The operator sits on the box to which the board is fastened and can work very rapidly.
Another Seed Potato Cutter
A wide bench is boxed in on both ends and one side. It is divided into two or three compartments, these being open in the front which corresponds to the side boxed in. To each of the compartments is attached a sack on hooks, and along one side of the bench in the middle of each compartment and right over the opening of the sack is fixed, in an upright position, a shoemaker's or common steel table knife.
Potatoes to be cut for planting are shoveled into the compartments of the box and in front of each compartment a man takes his position, being seated on a box or stool for comfort's sake. He seizes the tubers in rapid succession and by pulling them against the blade quickly cuts each one into as many pieces as desired; the pieces are then dropped into the open sack. It is claimed that by this indirect method of using the knife two fairly good cutters can cut each day all the potatoes ordinarily required for the use of one planter.
How to Test Seed Corn
Of the different methods for testing seed corn, the most convenient and satisfactory is a shallow box provided with wet sawdust to furnish the moisture and a marked cloth on which to lay the kernels. The most convenient box is one 2 feet square. This will accommodate 100 ears. It is best to make it about 6 inches deep. Fill a sack half full of clean sawdust and soak it for three or four hours in water. Then spread this sawdust in the bottom of the test box to the depth of 1 inch. Take a smooth brick and pack the sawdust down all over the box, making it as level as possible. Be sure to get it packed firmly around the edges and in the corners.
Then take a piece of white muslin 25 inches square. Stretch this tight on a table so that it can be marked. Rule off on this cloth with a heavy blue pencil 100 squares 2 inches each way. Beginning at the upper left-hand corner number these squares in rotation from left to right. When the ruling is done, pack the cloth in the germination box so that it will rest firmly on the sawdust. This can be done by pointing the tacks in the edge of the box downward, and as the tack is driven in it will draw the cloth tight over the sawdust.
Of course, there is no advantage testing any ears that are of undesirable shape or conformation, therefore the first step is to pick out those nearest to the type wanted. Lay these out in rows upon a plank or upon the floor, separating each ten ears with a nail driven into the plank or floor. Starting at the left-hand end of the row call the first ear No. 1, then the first ear beyond the first nail will be No. 11, the one beyond the second nail No. 21 and so on. Remove six kernels from ear No. I and place them in square No. 1 in the test box. Put six kernels from ear No. 2 in square No. 2 and so on through the row. In removing the kernels from the ear take a pocketknife in the right hand and the ear in the left. Place the blade at the side of the kernel you wish to remove and pry it gently. The kernel will come out easily and should be caught in the palm of the left hand. First remove a kernel from near the butt of the ear; turn the ear a quarter turn in the hand and remove a kernel from the center; turn the ear another quarter turn and remove a kernel from near the tip; another quarter turn and remove a second kernel from near the butt; another quarter and remove the second kernel from the center; another quarter turn and remove a second kernel from the tip. This makes six kernels from six different rows and representing the butt, middle and tip.
In placing the kernels in the box it will be found of advantage to point the tips all in the same direction, and also to lay the kernels with the germ uppermost. If the kernels are laid in the squares promiscuously, they may be thrown out of their places when the sprouts begin to grow. When the kernels are all in place, take a second piece of white cloth fully 24 inches square, moisten it and lay it carefully over the kernels. This will hold them in place while the top layer of sawdust is being put on. Take a third piece of cloth about 48 x 30 inches and lay it over the box so that the edges lap about equally. Then in this cloth put another inch of wet sawdust and pack it down firmly, especially around the edges. When this is done turn the edges of the cloth over the sawdust to keep it from drying out too rapidly and place the test box where it will not be subjected to cold below a living-room temperature.
Reading the Results
After seven days carefully roll back the cloth containing the top layer of sawdust and lift the second cloth off the kernels. This must be done with care, because sometimes the sprouts grow through the cloth and the kernels will cling to it.
Observe the results in square No. 1. If all six of the kernels have vigorous sprouts, from 3/4 to 2 inches long, you can be sure that ear No. 1 is thoroughly good. If in square No. 2 only two of the kernels have sprouted, you may know that ear No. 2 will make much better hog feed than seed corn. As soon as you have determined that ear No. 2 is really bad, pull it out from the row about half its length, leaving the other ears in place. After you have gone through the whole line, you may then go back and pick out the bad ears and discard them.
Of course, we would all prefer to use only those ears that gave a perfect germination, and if one has enough, that is the thing to do. But experience has taught that it is quite safe to use an ear, four of whose kernels grow strong sprouts. Or, if seed corn is scarce, one should not hesitate to use one that gave three strong sprouts and two weaker ones.
This testing may be done at any time after the ears are dry. It is generally more convenient to do it in winter, when there is not much outside work to be done. The box may be set behind the stove or any other convenient place, where it is sufficiently warm; in many cases, where there is an attic above the kitchen that room is a sufficiently warm place for testing.
Some put sand in an ordinary dinner plate, flood with water, and then drain the excess water off, place the seed on top of the sand, and cover with another dinner plate, Others use a saucer made of porous clay. The seeds are placed in this, the saucer set in a pan of water, and the pan covered.
These methods may be used for other grains as well as corn. In case of sowing grasses, alfalfa or wheat, it is often of great advantage to test the seed.
Every man has two educations -- that which is given to him and the other, that which he gives to himself. Of the two kinds, the latter is by far the most valuable. Indeed, all that is most worthy in a man he must work out and conquer for himself. It is that that constitutes our real and best nourishment. What we are merely taught, seldom nourishes the mind like that which we teach our selves.
Killing Insects in Grain
If one has not time to make a substantial box for fumigation of seed grain for insect destruction, barrels may be utilized for the purpose. Get two tight, strong barrels, such as coal oil barrels, and make water tight. Put in the seed to be fumigated, cover with a blanket and close-fitting cover. Before covering pour carbon bisulphide, which is explosive, over the grain, at the rate of 3 to 4 ounces for 5 bushels of grain. If it is not desirable to pour this poison on grain, set a saucer on it, and pour the poison in the saucer. Place a small block near the saucer to hold up the blanket 1 or 2 inches higher, lay blanket over the barrel, and place cover securely in place and weight with stone. This will kill the weevil in peas and beans.
Binding Pins for Hay
Every person moving hay ought to have a set of binding pins. They are made in a minute and serve an excellent purpose for a lifetime. The sketch shows a rope stretched over the top of a load of hay or straw. The upright pin is worked down into the load and the other twisted in the rope and turned around the upright until the load is tightly bound. Then a small rope that is kept tied in end of the horizontal pin is tied to the binding rope and the pressure is held. Each pin is 3-1/2 feet long. One is sharpened and the other has a 1/2-inch hole bored through one end. Old fork handles are just the thing to make them of. One pin only may be made and a fork used to bind in the manner shown after the load is on.
Nothing is impossible to industry.
Combined Drag and Harrow
This road drag is all right. The front piece consists of a 4 x 4 oak strip, b, 10 feet long, through which are driven ordinary harrow teeth about 3 inches apart. This is attached to the rear piece, a, which is a 2 x 6 oak timber 10 feet long faced with 3 inches of 1/4-inch metal on the bottom, e, which projects 1 inch. These pieces are kept apart by wooden blocks, d, upon the bolts, f, and by the top strips, c, each 2 x 6. This makes a fine level road, as it harrows it and scrapes it at the same time.
How to Handle a Rope
A rope is one of the most useful articles that are constantly needed about the farm; but too many farmers are not familiar with the many uses to which the rope may be put. The various sailors' knots may often be used to great advantage. To sling a plank for painting or other purposes make a bight of rope as shown in Figure 1, bringing the rope entirely around the plank, so as to prevent its turning and throwing the workman down. One-half to 3/4-inch rope is usually sufficient for all practical purposes. A hemp rope is more generally used and stands wear better than other kinds.
A useful way to sling a can or pail from the end of a rope is shown in Figure 2. Prepared in this way the vessel is secure so long as the rope is not slipped off from the bottom. Secure the knot firmly at the top to allow no slipping and so that the pail may not become lopsided.
Scaffolding may often be erected by tying poles together as shown in Figure 3. This sort of lashing will not slip if made tight. In many cases a chain may be used as shown in Figure 4, in which case the weight should be on the side of the upright where the chain is lowest. All of these lashings must be drawn very tight so as not to allow any play, which may result disastrously.
An excellent hitch knot is shown in Figure 5, readily made, easily loosened and valuable for many purposes on the farm. This knot is readily untied by slackening up the drawing strand. It does not become tight and hard as many ordinary knots after heavy usage.
In many cases where heavy hooks are used they are liable to come unfastened unless a cord is affixed, as shown in Figure 6. A few turns of heavy twine or light wire in the middle will frequently prevent any loosening of the chain.
A ring hitch, shown in Figure 7, is a very effective and safe method, which may be made on short notice. The loose end of the rope is allowed to hang free or may be tied with a slip knot to the drawing strand.
Tying Some Useful Knotsch10-few-good-knots
A sailor judges knots for their holding qualities and also their ability to be quickly unfastened, without regard to the strain they have been subjected to. A knot's main office is to hold, without working loose or slipping, yet they do occasionally fail absolutely to accomplish this, when made by inexperienced hands. The accompanying diagrams show some of the simpler knots that may be of everyday use. In these, the mode of formation can be readily discerned, because the rope's position is shown before tightening. The overhand knot, Figure 1, is probably the simplest of all. It is used only for making a knot at the end of a rope to keep it from fraying or to prevent another knot from slipping. If a slight change in formation is made, as in Figure 5, it develops into a slip knot or, as it is sometimes called, a single sling, and its purposes are obvious. A double sling is represented in Figure 6, and though it is slightly more complicated, it is considerably more useful for any purpose where a rope is to be attached to a bar or beam and stand a steady strain.
Probably for convenience and emergencies no knots equal the bow-line, Figure 7, because it will not slip or give, no matter how great the tension; in fact, the rope itself is no stronger, and the instant the strain ceases it can be untied as easily as a bow. When the end of a rope is to be secured, the two half-hitches or clove hitch, Figures 2 and 3, are of great importance, for either of these bends can be attached instantly to almost anything, and their holding powers are exceeded by none. The square knot, Figure 4, can be used for infinite purposes, from reefing a sail to tying a bundle, the advantage being, if made properly, of resisting any separating strain on either cord, and yet can be untied immediately by pulling one of the short ends.
One of the best and safest slip knots is shown in Figure 9, made with the overhand at the end, which, until loosened by the hand, maintains its grip. When a rope requires shortening temporarily the sheep shank, Figure 8, affords a means of so doing. This knot can be applied to any part of the rope without reducing its strength of rectilineal tension.
Carrying a Barrel Made Easy
In the cities the ash collectors use a simple device, which farmers might make and often find handy, as barrels often become dried, weak and will not stand rough handling. The device is made of six pieces of wood; four pieces are about 2 feet long and 4 inches in thickness and width. Handles may be whittled on one end of each. About 10 inches from the other end, boards about 2 feet long and 8 inches wide are nailed as shown at c, c, in figure. Pieces c, c, are then cut in circular form so as to fit the outside of a barrel.
An old wheel tire may be straightened and four pieces cut to be fastened to the ends of each of the four handle pieces, as at d. These are then riveted together so as to make hinges as shown at d, d. The tire need be only long enough to fasten securely to the handle pieces. Of course, the blacksmith should drill holes in them, that they may be securely riveted.
To use this device, drop it over the barrel. One man lifts on the two front handles and another man on the rear handles. Boards c, c, close up in circular form, just beneath the lowest hoop round the upper end of the barrel, and cling tightly. The barrel is then lifted and readily carried without jar to its contents or straining the barrel. Of course, if all the barrels on the farm are of uniform size, the device could be made without hinges, and the barrels headed up could be rolled on pieces c, c.
The best part of one's life is the performance of his daily duties. All higher motives, ideals, conceptions, sentiments, in a man are of no account if they do not come forward to strengthen him for the better discharge of the duties which devolve upon him in the ordinary affairs of life.
-- Henry Ward Beecher.
The accompanying drawing represents a very handy harness mender which anyone who can use a saw and hammer can make in a few minutes. It is made of lumber of the dimensions indicated in the drawing. The clamp is tightened by the worker sitting upon the seat, which should extend at least 2 feet from the clamps. The drawing shows the device with a shorter seat than that. It would doubtless be better to have the seat extended to twice the length shown from the left of the clamps and to have the base extended in a similar manner, so that the device will not tip over too easily. The joint at the upper right-hand corner may be hinged with heavy wire run through holes and twisted together underneath, or real strap hinges of iron may be attached.
They who provide much wealth for their children, but neglect to improve them in virtue, do like those who feed their horses high, but never train them to the manage.