Handy Farm Devices and How To Make Them
Compiled by Rolfe Cobleigh, NEW YORK, ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 1912, Associate Editor American Agriculturist.
Barns and Stock Part II
Heating Water for Hog Killing
A device which is superior to the old iron kettle for heating water is shown in this sketch. Take a piece of 2-inch iron pipe 8 feet long and have it securely screwed into the bottom of a stout vinegar barrel. In the other end of the pipe screw a large wooden block.
By arranging the affair as shown in the sketch water in the barrel will be heated rapidly and can be removed as desired without bothering the fire. Do not make the mistake of putting a metal cap on the end of the pipe, or the steam may sometimes burst the piping before the cap will come off. The wooden block acts as a safety valve and will fly out if pressure is too great.
A Farm Slaughterhouse
If one butchers his own stock on the farm he would do well to fix up a small building for a slaughterhouse. This can be done so easily and at such small expense that almost any farmer can afford one. It is generally most convenient to have it near the hog yard, for then the refuse can be easily conveyed to the hogs. Indeed it would not be a half bad idea to have it in some instances a part of the hog house. The room in which to kill cattle and hogs should not be less than 15 feet square. This will give plenty of space for the work. As much of the room should be kept clear from fixtures as possible.
The floor should be made of concrete graded so that it will all drain to a central opening. A pipe should carry the liquid from this opening to a trough in the hog yard. The ideal way would be to make the walls of concrete for about 3 feet from the ground. This will make it much easier to keep the place clean. It is quite necessary that a good supply of water be close at hand. If possible, a water pipe with hose attached should be in the house. This will enable one to flood the floor at any time.
The illustration shows a very good device for handling the carcasses. It is made of a heavy roller, c, 5 to 6 inches thick, and long enough to reach across the width of the room. It is supported in the middle by a bracket, d, detail of which is shown in the drawing. This makes it possible to lift a carcass of any weight. A drum, b, is attached to the roller at one end, over which is run the rope that communicates with the crank, a, at the floor. Any man handy with tools can make this derrick.
In order to simplify matters one may use a barrel cart water heater. This barrel has a valve attached at the bottom. To this is fastened a rubber hose that communicates with a small coil of pipes. This coil of pipes in turn communicates with the top of the barrel by another rubber hose. The coil of pipes is placed over a fire built in a hole in the ground, and the valve is opened.
As soon as the water in the coils becomes hot it is forced through the rubber hose, and a circulation is started. This device will heat water very rapidly and easily. When the water is heated the rubber hose is detached and the barrel wheeled under the derrick on which the hog is hung. By means of a crank the carcass is let into the water to be scalded. With simple devices one man can very easily do the butchering alone. It will be found convenient to have a table that folds up against the side of the building on which to cut up the meat.
Keep Pigs out of Feed Trough
To prevent hogs crowding and getting in the trough with their feet the accompanying plan will be found practical. You can nail the Vs, or rick-rack work, on any shaped trough. They fit on a pointed or flat-bottomed trough equally well. Nail a strip lengthwise along the top of the Vs to strengthen them. Stakes driven at intervals and nailed securely to the angles will hold the Vs and trough both solid.
Movable House for Breeding Sows
Individual hog houses may be constructed with four upright walls and a shed roof, as shown below. The walls and the roof are separate and can be easily taken down and replaced. These small houses can be moved about very easily. The size of the house will depend upon conditions. The construction is shown, so that any farmer with tools can easily put up one of these houses. With the individual houses the sow at farrowing time may be kept alone and away from all disturbance and there will not be too large a number of pigs in a small lot if kept in this way. The danger of spreading diseases among the animals is also reduced to a minimum where swine are kept more isolated. When properly bedded and cared for no disastrous disease need be feared. Much depends upon the sanitary conditions.
Well-arranged Hog Lots
An Indiana farmer keeps his pigs in long houses which are divided into compartments opening into small lots. The sketch shows how they stand. Breeding hogs and fattening shotes are allowed the run of their own lots, as well as occasional changes into the larger field, shown at the bottom of the sketch, which is a timothy and clover pasture. It is better to have pigs in separate quarters in small bunches, for in this way they can be better attended to and the growths are more uniform.
Handy Pig Catcher
Here is a homemade device for catching small pigs which saves much time and annoyance. The net may be made from a discarded lawn tennis net, the rim from a bicycle wheel, and the handle is a heavy rake handle. The net is securely fastened to the rim with some copper wire, while the rim is fastened to the handle with two pieces of band iron. Small pigs caught in the net will not squeal and struggle as when chased around the pen and caught by one leg. The element of excitement is greatly reduced by use of the net, and some would find less fun in the net method. On the whole, however, we recommend it.
The weakest arm is strong enough that strikes with the sword of justice.
Our knowledge is the amassed thought and experience of innumerable minds.
Stairs for the Barn
A lot of time is saved if one has handy stairs which can be used for throwing down hay as well as a passageway. These steps are made of light material and instead of putting on a lower step, use a block, c, and attach the stringers of the stairs to it at each end with a pin. A rope passes over the pulleys at d, to a weight, which allows the stairway to be held upright while the hay is being put down. The rope, e, is handy to pull the stairs into position.
Hang Up the Lantern
Here is a good idea for hanging a lantern over the barn floor. Get two pulleys with screw stems, and screw one in beam overhead, the other at top of post. Have a bracket lower on the same post. Take a piece of small but strong cord, and at one end fasten a snap and pass the other end through the pulleys. Put your lantern on the snap and draw it high enough so it will be out of reach of forking hay, and you can see all over the barn floor. You can raise the lantern high enough to pitch hay from the top of the mow with no danger of turning the light over and burning the building and contents.
The end of the cord opposite the lantern may be fastened with a snap, or more length may be allowed for adjusting the height of the lantern, and the cord may be secured by a hitch or a few turns around a button or two spikes driven halfway in and bent over in opposite directions.
Arrangement for Weighing
A homemade balance may be constructed with a joist loosely attached, so as to just balance over the rounded top of a heavy block. It will be useful in weighing hay and other bulky substances for feeding purposes. For weights, use small wooden boxes or bags of stone and sand which have been weighed on other scales. Place the required weight upon the balance and then place feed on the other end until it balances the weight, and it will be accurate enough for all ordinary purposes.
A Barn Windlass
It is easily made of iron pipe or a bar fastened to the ladder or other suitable support by means of eyebolts or stout staples, as shown at a in the drawing. It may be used for raising grain, wagon boxes and other heavy things to the upper part of the barn, and, if desired, may be rigged with block and falls, so as to increase the power without increasing the effort. A loose bolt placed in a hole will prevent unwinding. The picture shows how simple this device is. Every farmer knows how useful a barn windlass may be.
Grain Box Easy to Empty
The trouble with most grain boxes is to get out the last third of the grain. Bending over the edge jackknife fashion is neither pleasant nor healthful. A box or bin may be made with half its front on hinges, so that it can be let down and all the contents scooped out without difficulty. The bin may be made from a piano box with a partition in the middle for two kinds of grain.
Leave your son a good reputation and an employment.
Easily Constructed Grain Bins
Grain bins with compartments for different kinds of feed are handy in barn or stable. By procuring a number of dry-goods boxes, all of the same size and shape, and nailing them together side by side, so that they will appear as one, the bin is easily made. The cover should extend the entire length of the bin, and though leather hinges will answer, it is better to attach it with iron ones, for then, with a good staple and hasp, the contents can be kept under lock and key if desired.
A Convenient Barn Truck
No dairyman can afford to ignore that which will lighten his labor in any way whatever. Be his stable ever so conveniently constructed, he has enough to do. Hence the importance of his considering a feeding truck or car if he does not have one. Made of good lumber, the only iron about it need be the handle at each end, by which to push or pull it along the feeding alley in front of the cows which are to be fed, and the small trucks on which it is mounted. The wheels procured, any good blacksmith can make these, so that the truck is by no means difficult to construct. The box body should be about 2 feet wide, 20 inches deep and 4-1/2 feet long. Silage can be conveyed in it from the silo to the mangers very readily. If the silo is some distance away, it will save much hard work.
If little labor, little are our gaines:
Man's fortunes are according to his paines.
Takes a Man's Place
In most cases it takes two men to fill a sack of grain, but by using the sack holder one man can do it alone. Make a platform, b, 20 inches square, and fasten to it a 2 x 4, c, with notches cut in. The arms, a, should be 18 inches long. Make the upright piece 3 feet long so that long bags can be handled. Some bags will require a still longer upright piece. A device that takes the place of a man or enables a man to work twice as fast as he could without it is worth while.
A wise old owl sat on an oak,
The longer he stayed the less he spoke.
The less he spoke the more he heard.
Why are not more of us like that wise old bird?
There are but two ways of paying debt: increase of industry in raising income, increase of thrift in laying out.
If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere well
It were done quickly.
A Handy Bag Holder
It is constructed with two good boards 1 inch thick and 15 inches wide. The perpendicular one is 3-1/2 feet long, and the horizontal one 2 feet long. These are joined together and braced as shown in the drawing, and the hopper is attached, wedged out from the perpendicular board so the bag may wrap it all the way round. The hooks for holding the bag in place can be secured at a hardware store. As the whole affair, if composed of thoroughly seasoned lumber is light to handle, it can easily be carried to any spot where grain is to be put up.
Here is another scheme that saves time and labor and makes it possible for one man to do the work that usually requires two. This one is as good and perhaps better than any device that has been invented in the bag-holder line. In making it, an important point is to attach all parts very securely where they come together, especially the hopper and the braces. Otherwise, with hard usage the holder will get loose and break down.
A Corn Husking Rack
Many who husk their corn by hand find it very tiresome to sit on the floor or ground in a cramped position. A rack made as shown in the drawing will hold two or three shocks and gives a better place for the husker to sit. Place the stalks cross-wise of the bench in front of you.
A Homemade Feed Cutter
An old lawn mower can be arranged to make a fairly satisfactory straw or feed cutter. One must rig up a hopper, as shown in the sketch, and attach the mower to the lower end of it so that the straw or grain will just strike the knives where the grass usually comes into the mower. A crank and a belt arrangement makes it easy for one man to feed and turn the cutter. This is a good use for a lawn mower in the winter time when it is not working outdoors.
Saw Root Cutter
Those who have cut roots in the winter time with a butcher knife or hatchet will fully appreciate something better for a root cutter. A Wisconsin farmer has found a serviceable homemade lever cutter very efficient for all roots. For hard ones, like rutabagas, it is about the best thing available. His is made out of an old hand saw, sharpened on the back, fastened by means of a bolt passing through a hole punched at the small end, and held by a guide formed of two pieces of wood secured upright, so as to have a slit for the saw to work in. This contrivance is a success, and with a little practice the roots may be cut very rapidly. See accompanying illustration. The cutter may be mounted upon the wall wherever it will be most convenient. The bench or platform should be at about the height of a common table.
Homemade Cabbage Cutter
A cheap and easily made cabbage and root cutter is shown in the drawing. Take two 12-inch boards and nail them strongly together. With dividers mark around a circle, then saw out and mark in quarters. Cut four slots 7 inches long on a slant, as shown by dotted lines, so the cabbage will fall through easily. Next cut two circles 4 inches in diameter. Nail one to the large wheel on the back and leave the other loose on the shaft to act as a bearing. Make a frame to admit the wheel, leaving 2 inches clear, and just wide enough so the knives do not strike the side. Make a top over the wheel and put a hopper on the opposite side from the crank. The knives are 8 inches long and can be made from an old bucksaw and ground down sharp, with a bevel on one side. Screw these on the wheel at a slant according to the thickness the cabbage is wanted. A square hole should be cut through the center of the wheel for the shaft.
Kindle not the fire that you cannot extinguish.
A Substantial Driveway
A plank driveway to the barn is usually made steep in order to save planks. It is continually wearing out and breaking. A substantial driveway with an easy grade can be made by driving down stakes close together on either side, and filling in between with stones, rubbish and earth, packing all down firmly. When full to the top, pack some earth against the outside of the stakes and sod over the sides. This driveway will form an easy rise and will prove very durable.