by J.M.Drew St. Paul Publishing Company 1918
- HOME -Farm Blacksmithing
To make a heading iron upset one end of a piece of good iron Norway is to be preferred, as shown in Fig. 16; then punch the hole the desired size, and either weld a piece of thin steel on the face side or case harden the face. In punching the hole, make it a taper hole, smallest at the f-ace side. The face may be case hardened by heating to a good light red heat and sprinkling with powdered cyanide of potassium.
This chemical is a very strong poison, and should be kept in a safe place, away from the reach of children. The handiest way of applying it is to use an ordinary tin pepper box with perforated top.
A clevis bolt should have an eye, or slot for a key at the lower end. To make the slot, use a flat punch and after punching dress the bolt down to the proper size while the punch is still in place. Fig. 18 shows how nuts may be made. Little explanation is necessary. The iron is drawn out the right width and thickness; then nearly cut off on the hardy; then the hole is punched. The sides are squared up while the punch is in the hole. In heating a nut after cutting it off from the bar, instead of handling it with a pair of tongs use a piece of wire, or a one-fourth inch rod with a short bend in the end.
As a general thing enough odd nuts may be found in the farmer's workshop, in which new threads may be cut, so that it will seldom be necessary to make new ones. The farm blacksmith will appreciate the need of saving all the old nuts and bolts to use in cases where they may save the necessity of making new ones. Cutting threads on bolts is a very simple operation, and needs little description. The standard numbe1'8 of threads for carriage bolts are as follows:
- 1/4 in. bolts 20 threads to an inch
- 5/16 in. bolts 18 threads to an inch
- 3/8 in. bolts 16 threads to an inch
- 7/16 in. bolts 14 threads to an inch
- 1/2 in. bolts 12 threads to an inch
- 5/8 in. bolts 11 threads to an inch
- 3/4 in. bolts 10 threads to an inch
- 1 in. bolts 8 threads to an inch
A set of stocks and dies to cut all of the above threads will cost about $12; but a set which will answer all ordinary purposes of the farm blacksmith need not cost more than three or four dollars. For this price one can get a set of taper taps and a stock containing three sets of dies, cutting 20, 16 and 10 threads to an inch, and which may be used on all sizes of bolts and nuts, from one-fourth of an inch up to three-fourths of an inch. In using either dies or taps, plenty of oil should be used; lard oil is best. Never use dies on steel or hot iron. In using the ordinary stocks and dies to cut threads on a bolt, it is best to start at the bottom of the intended thread rather than to try to screw the dies on from the end of the bolt. It is much easier to get the dies started straight in this way.
In using taper taps for threading nuts the taps should be run in the same depth from both sides of the nut. When fitting a nut to a bolt thread the bolt first then run the tap into the nut till the threads will fit the end of the bolt, then reverse the nut and run the tap in to the same depth from the other side. The farmer's workshop should be supplied with an assortment of bolts, washers, screws, rivets, etc., which, if kept in order where a bolt or screw or rivet of any particular size and length may be found when wanted, will prove a great saving of time.
Much may be saved by buying such things in wholesale lots, rather than a few at a time: For instance, it is cheaper to buy a package of 50 carriage bolts than to pay the retail price for half that number. A fairly complete list of carriage bolts would be made up of one package each of the following sizes and lengths: 1/4 Diameter 5/16 diameter 3/8 diameter 1/2 diameter Length Pr. Pkg. of 100 Length Pr. Pkge of 50 Length Pr. Pkge. Of 50 Length Pr. Pkge of 50 1 ¼ .25c 1 ½ .26c 2...28c 2 ½ .30c 3....32c 3 ½ .34c 4....36c 4 ½ .39c 5...40c 5 ½ .43c 6...45c 1 ½ .16c 2...17c 2 ½ .18c 3...19c 3 ½..21c 4...22c 4 ½ ...24c 5...25c 5 ½..26c 6...28c 1 ¼ .18c 1 ½ .19c 2 ..19c 2 ½..21c 3...24c 3 ½ .26c 4 ..26c 4 ½ .29c 5 ..31c 6 ..34c 2...37c 2 ½..38c 3...39c 3 ½..42c 4... 45c 4 ½ .47c 5...50c 5 ½ .52c 6...55c An assortment of washers for the different sizes of bolts should be kept.