Farm Blacksmithing

by J.M.Drew St. Paul Publishing Company 1918


To make a ring take a piece of 1/2 or 7/16 in. iron a foot long, and unset both ends, as shown at a, Fig. 9. This upsetting is done by heating one end and holding it on the anvil and striking the other end. In doing this take a short heat, that is, heat only an inch or so of the end, and be careful not to let it get bent in upsetting. If it bends, straighten it at once. After upsetting both ends, heat one end and scarf it for welding. Do this by first holding it on the anvil at an angle of about 30 degrees, and striking with the hammer held at a corresponding angle. Strike a few blows, or until the iron assumes the shape shown at b. Now turn the iron a quarter turn, and lay it flat on the anvil and shape like c. D is another view of the same. In doing this do not strike straight down, but drive the iron back toward you. Next, treat the other end in the same way, being careful to make the scarf on the side opposite the first one, so that when the ring is bent the two scarfs will come together. Be sure to bend the ring as shown in the cut, so that in welding you can get at both ends of the scarfs with the hammer. After welding, work the iron around the weld down to its original size. Do not attempt to make a ring without first upsetting the ends, or you will find after welding that the iron is too small each side of the weld;-a condition which cannot be remedied. In making a ring for a chain, do not attempt to join to the chain before welding, but first finish the ring, then join to the chain by another link.

Making a Ring Figure 9

In case of a rush job, where appearances do not count for much, or where it will make no particular difference if there is a thin place in the ring, one may make a ring after the fashion of a chain link, rounding it up afterwards.


Two ways are here shown of making a chain hook. The first is a good way when good iron is used. The iron is first upset, then rounded off. Then a hole is punched and worked out large over the horn of the anvil, and the iron around the hole is rounded up at the same time. Next it is cut off and the end drawn down to a blunt point and rounded. It is next bent a little over half way; then the back is beveled so that it is quite thin; but the inside of the hook is left as thick as possible. The shaded portions in the figure marked c show how it should look in cross-sections if cut through.

Making a Chain Hook Figure 10

This exercise introduces an operation which we have not met with before; that is, punching. To punch a hole in iron, heat to white heat; hold on the anvil, not over the hole, but over the solid face of the anvil and drive the punch till it feels as though it were solid against the face of the anvil; then turn the iron over and you can see a clear round space where the punch tried to come through. Place the punch on this spot and drive it in; now place the iron over the hole in the anvil and drive the punch through. This will make a clean-cut, smooth hole, whereas if it had been punched from one side only, a ragged hole would have been the result.

Making a Chain Hook Figure 11

Another way of making a chain hook is shown in Fig. 11. This way is always to be preferred to the one just described if the iron used is not very tough. Smaller iron may also be used than in the first way, because it is doubled where the most strength is required. The cut shows the method of making so clearly that little description is necessary. The iron is usually drawn down a little in size where the eye is to be; then is bent and welded; then cut off and sharpened and bent the same as in the case of the first hook.

The beginner is quite apt to burn the iron around the eye before getting it hot enough where the weld is to be. It is a good plan to heat to near the welding point; then dip the eye part in water until it turns black; then reheat very quickly, and the eye part will not get too hot again before the other part is ready to weld. A grab hook is made in the same way, only it is left square after welding, and then bent on the corner, as shown in Fig. 11. To start the bend right, place in the square hardy-hole in the anvil.